Consider the following two questions:
1. Who are you?
(To answer this question, think about factors such as your
personality characteristics, your intellectual skills, your
relationships with others, your appearance, your occupation
and so on.)
2. How did you become this person? What
has made you into the
person you are?
(Write a paragraph similar to the example below, in which
you try to identify some of the important influences on you
when you were younger)
• Who influenced you while you were
• What events had an impact on you?
• How have these people or events formed or changed
For example, Jacqui writes: I could
say that I am quite tall with curly hair and blue-green eyes.
I think that I inherited these features from my mother. I
am hardworking and try to give of my best, probably because
my parents were themselves like that, and my father particularly
worked very hard. Since both my parents couldn’t finish
their schooling due to finances, they placed value on education,
and encouraged me. I trained as a teacher because I was inspired
by some of the excellent teachers who had encouraged me. I
then developed an interest in teacher education because of
my interest in children’s development and the needs
for teacher training in our country.
So, we could work out Jacqui’s
answer to the questions above by considering her description:
She is a woman who values hard work and has developed skills
as an educator.
She has strong interests in teacher education and is motivated
to make a contribution.
She inherited some of her characteristics from her parents,
but also learnt from observing their lifestyles. She was also
influenced by her own teachers.
Who we are, and how we become what we are, is
what developmental psychology is all about. This is why we asked
you to do the self-activity.
What is developmental psychology?
Developmental psychology is the “study of
how individuals change over time and what factors produce these
changes” (Shaffer, 1996:4).
Developmental psychology looks at how human beings
grow and develop over the course of their lives. It examines changes
• physical development
• social relations
• emotional development
• personality development
• moral development (perceptions of what is right and wrong)
• cognitive ability (thinking, processing information, learning)
1. Draw a time line between your birth and
your current age, marking the line in sections of 5 years.
You may prefer to turn a piece of A4 size paper in this direction,
to give yourself more space:
2. Now fill in any significant life events you remember at
the age at which they happened – and you might like
to draw in some pictures representing these. (For example
there are happy events: you may have moved home, or won an
award, or gone on a significant holiday, or got married, or
had a child. There are also difficult events: you may have
had an accident, or lost a loved one, or failed at something).
We call such a drawing a time line.
After drawing your personal time line, we
hope that you can see that development is a process, which
continues over the whole of a lifespan. Development will also
be impacted on by a variety of life experiences, such as those
you represented on your time line. Thus it is important to
see that development is a complex process with many influential
factors playing a role.
2.1.1 Why do we study Developmental
We study developmental psychology because as educators,
we make important contributions to learners’ development.
If we know something about what makes our learners the people they
are, then, as responsible educators, we will:
- try and make sure that children receive the
best possible care, so that they become healthy, well-adjusted
- be better able to decide on appropriate child-rearing
and teaching practices. We need to make sure we promote the development
of children to prevent problems in the future.
- know what changes happen as a child grows
older, and roughly when they occur. If these changes do not occur
when expected, then we become alert to possible problems. Also,
remember that a learner must acquire certain skills before they
can acquire other skills.
For example: We know from a study of developmental
psychology that a child usually begins to say some words from about
age 12 - 18 months. If a child has not started talking within this
time or soon after, we start to wonder why.
- have a better understanding
of what a child needs to develop in the best possible way. If
we know what children need, then we can make sure that we structure
suitable educational and social programmes to meet their needs.
- understand what issues children face
as they develop. Knowing this helps us to support them better.
- not make assumptions about what a learner
can or cannot do on the basis of their age alone.
- expect that learners may show little
progress at some times and make significant progress at other
- try and help learners
to overcome the problems they may have.
For example: Research in developmental psychology
shows us that children growing up in conditions of violence can
experience many emotional problems, and can end up using violence
to solve their own problems. Here you can see that we often need
to know how people have become what they have become, in order to
help them grow and develop in positive ways.
Knowledge of developmental psychology is very
important in South Africa, where thousands of children grew up under
the apartheid system, which may have influenced them physically,
socially, emotionally, cognitively and morally, as adults today.
The importance of developmental psychology is recognized in the
new South African constitution because the care and education of
children are specifically noted. We can use our knowledge of developmental
psychology to understand developmental differences and assist children,
and to make sure that we create the best possible conditions for
the development of future generations of children.
Education legislature in South Africa points towards
building a culture of learning and teaching that aims to achieve
quality education for all learners, where differences among learners
are respected, and where all learners are given the opportunity
to learn and participate fully in the curricula of schools and learning
institutions. Outcomes Based Education (OBE) provides a framework
for learning and teaching which can be structured to respond effectively
to a wide range of learner needs.
One purpose of schooling is to facilitate learning,
to make learning more effective by removing or minimising barriers
to learning and participation that might learners might experience.
Another purpose of schooling is to broaden a learner’s horizons,
through a balanced curriculum.
The curriculum, then, must be responsive to all
learners. Different aspects of the curriculum include: the content/what
is taught; the language or medium of instruction; the organisation
and management of the classroom; the methods and processes used
in teaching; the pace of teaching and the time available to complete
the curriculum; the learning materials, resources and equipment
used; and, how learning is assessed. If the curriculum is to be
responsive to the needs of all learners, all these aspects must
Curriculum 2005 and its OBE approach is learner-centred.
By learner-centred we mean:
- all learners must be given the opportunity
to learn to their full potential
- educators have the responsibility of creating
learning environments that are challenging, inviting and motivating
for all learners
- learners should be allowed to demonstrate
their competence as it relates to their abilities or to their
levels of development and functioning
- learners must be allowed to develop at their
own pace and rate
Given that teachers cannot teach and learners
cannot learn everything at once, teachers have to sequence tasks
and activities within the curriculum. It is necessary for teachers
to fit teaching to the nature of learners’ emerging understanding.
If a teacher knows something about how learners
grow and develop, what barriers and challenges they may face, he
will be better placed to create more effective learning experiences
for his learners. Teachers will, for example, be more competent
to set relevant tasks, ask helpful questions and provide responses
at the right level of difficulty. They are also more likely to recognize
significant developments in their interactions with learners, and
are better able to predict what interests learners of different
ages will have.
For example: The age of the children when they
reach puberty (the age at which a girl is capable of bearing a child,
and a boy is capable of fathering a child) can affect how they develop
emotionally. Research seems to show that boys who mature physically
earlier than other boys are more confident and more popular. Here
you can see how one aspect of development (physical) can influence
When teachers plan lessons, they are faced with
a task of ensuring that the work set is appropriate for the learners
in their class. They must ensure that the work is sufficiently challenging
and interesting. On the other hand, they must not teach above their
learners’ levels, because learners then lose confidence. Children
may become bored in class, but it is important to remember that
their boredom may be either the result of a lack of intellectual
challenge (when work is too easy or uninteresting) or a failure
to understand (when work is too difficult).
If you remember the time line activity you did
earlier, you will remember that many different factors had an impact
on your life and your development.
Individuals don’t develop in a vacuum. In
other words, how you develop depends on many things: your own biology,
your parents, your teachers, your peers, the cultural group you
are a member of, the religion you may belong to, the political context
and how these relate to each other.